Increasing the Quality of Agricultural and Plantation Residues using Combination of Fiber Cracking Technology and Urea for Ruminant Feeds
AbstractThis experiment aimed to evaluate the decrease of the fiber fraction of some agricultural and plantation residues after being treated with Fiber Cracking Technology (FCT) and urea. The residues included rice straw, oil palm frond (OPF), oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB), cocoa pod and coffee husk. They were added with 5% urea and incubated in FCT at temperature 135oC and pressure 2.3 atm for 2.5 h. The experimental treatments were arranged as a factorial design 5 × 2, in which the first factor was various agricultural and plantation residues (rice straw, OPF, OPEFB, cocoa pod and coffee husk) and the second factor was FCT application (untreated and treated with FCT + 5% urea), performed in 4 replicates. All treatments were subjected to Van Soest analysis and in vitro digestibility test. The decrease of fiber fraction was confirmed with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) methods. Results showed that FCT + 5% urea treatment decreased NDF, ADF, cellulose and lignin contents of all samples (P<0.05), and increased IVDMD and IVOMD in comparison to untreated samples (P<0.05). However, the treatment did not alter in vitro methane gas production and VFA profiles of the samples. Analyses using SEM, XRD and FTIR revealed that FCT + 5% urea treatment demolished cell wall component, decreased crystallinity index and cleaved fiber bonds. It was concluded that combination between FCT and urea 5% effectively enhances the quality of some fibrous feed materials.
Abdul, P. M., J. M. Jahim, S. Harun, M. Markom, N. A. Lutpi, O. Hassan, V. Balan, B. E. Dale, & M. T. Mohd Nor. 2016. Effects of changes in chemical and structural characteristic of ammonia fibre expansion (AFEX) pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch fibre on enzymatic saccharification and fermentability for biohydrogen. Bioresour. Technol. 211: 200-208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2016.02.135
Adapa, P. K., L. G. Tabil, G. J. Schoenau, T. Canam, & T. Dumonceaux. 2011. Quantitative analysis of lignocellulosic components of untreated and steam exploded barley, canola, oat and wheat straw using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. J. Agric. Sci. Technol. B1: 177-188.
Agbor, V. B., N. Cicek, R. Sparling, A. Berlin, & D. B. Levin. 2011. Biomass pretreatment: Fundamentals toward application. Biotechnol. Adv. 29: 675-685. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.05.005
Chaturvedi, V., & P. Verma. 2013. An overview of key pretreatment processes employed for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biofuels and value added products. Biotech. 3: 415-431. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13205-013-0167-8
El Abed, S., S. Koraichi, H. Latrache, & F. Hamadi. 2012. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Environmental SEM: Suitable Tools for Study of Adhesion Stage and Biofilm Formation, in: Kazmiruk, V. (Ed.), Scanning Electron Microscopy. InTech.
Fan, M., D. Dai, & B. Huang. 2012. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Natural Fibres, in: Salih, S. (Ed.), Fourier Transform - Materials Analysis. InTech. https://doi.org/10.5772/35482
Fatah, I., H. Khalil, M. Hossain, A. Aziz, Y. Davoudpour, R. Dungani, & A. Bhat. 2014. Exploration of a chemo-mechanical technique for the Isolation of nanofibrillated cellulosic fiber from oil palm empty fruit bunch as a reinforcing agent in composites materials. Polymers. 6: 2611-2624. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym6102611
Golding, C. G., L. L. Lamboo, D. R. Beniac, & T. F. Booth. 2016. The scanning electron microscope in microbiology and diagnosis of infectious disease. Sci. Rep. 6: 26516. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep26516
Guo, Y., & P. Wu. 2008. Investigation of the hydrogen-bond structure of cellulose diacetate by two dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy. Biopolymers 74: 509-513. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2008.04.005
Harun, S., V. Balan, M. S. Takriff, O. Hassan, J. Jahim, & B. E. Dale. 2013. Performance of AFEXTM pretreated rice straw as source of fermentable sugars: The influence of particle size. Biotechnol. Biofuels. 6: 40. https://doi.org/10.1186/1754-6834-6-40
Hildebrandt, N. C., P. Piltonen, J. -P. Valkama, & M. Illikainen. 2017. Self-reinforcing composites from commercial chemical pulps via partial dissolution with NaOH/urea. Ind. Crops Prod. 109: 79-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.08.014
Itoh, H., Y. Terashima, & A. Hayashizaki. 1981. Ammoniated rice straw and rice hulls and rumen microbial degradation investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Jpn. J. Zootech. Sci. 52 (9): 671-679. https://doi.org/10.2508/chikusan.52.671
Jayanegara, A., N. F. Ardhisty, S. P. Dewi, Antonius, R. Ridwan, E. B. Laconi, Nahrowi, & M. Ridla. 2018. Enhancing nutritional quality of oil palm empty fruit bunch by using Fiber Cracking Technology. Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol. (under review).
Jayanegara, A., R. S. K. Ayinda, & E. B. Laconi. 2017. Urea treatment of rice straw at elevated temperature and pressure: Effects on fiber content, rumen fermentation and digestibility. J. Indonesian Trop. Anim. Agric. 42: 81-87. https://doi.org/10.14710/jitaa.42.2.81-87
Jayanegara, A., S. P. Dewi, N. Laylli, E. B. Laconi, Nahrowi, & M. Ridla. 2016. Determination of cell wall protein from selected feedstuffs and its relationship with ruminal protein digestibility in vitro. Med. Pet. 39: 134-140. https://doi.org/10.5398/medpet.2016.39.2.134
Jayanegara, A., H. P. S. Makkar, & K. Becker. 2015. Addition of purified tannin sources and polyethylene glycol treatment on methane emission and rumen fermentation in vitro. Med. Pet. 38: 57-63. https://doi.org/10.5398/medpet.2015.38.1.57
Jayanegara, A., & E. Palupi. 2010. Condensed tannin effects on nitrogen digestion in ruminants: A meta-analysis from in vitro and in vivo studies. Med. Pet. 33: 176-181. https://doi.org/10.5398/medpet.2010.33.3.176
Jin, D., S. G. Zhao, N. Zheng, D. P. Bu, Y. Beckers, & J. Q. Wang. 2018. Urea nitrogen induces changes in rumen microbial and host metabolic profiles in dairy cows. Livest. Sci. 210: 104-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2018.02.011
Laconi, E. B., & A. Jayanegara. 2015. Improving nutritional quality of cocoa pod (Theobroma cacao) through chemical and biological treatments for ruminant feeding: in vitro and in vivo evaluation. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 28: 343-350. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.13.0798
Lau, M. J., M. W. Lau, C. Gunawan, & B. E. Dale. 2010. Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation on Empty Palm Fruit Bunch Fiber (EPFBF) for cellulosic ethanol production. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 162: 1847-1857. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-010-8962-8
Liu, Y., T. Hu, Z. Wu, G. Zeng, D. Huang, Y. Shen, X. He, M. Lai, & Y. He. 2014. Study on biodegradation process of lignin by FTIR and DSC. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 21: 14004-14013. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3342-5
Mishra, A., H. Patil, & G. Jain. 2014. XRD, LPF and FTIR investigation of Mn-Bi alloy. J. Phys: Conf. Ser. 534 012022. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/534/1/012022
Mittal, A., R. Katahira, M. E. Himmel, & D. K. Johnson. 2011. Effects of alkaline or liquid-ammonia treatment on crystalline cellulose: changes in crystalline structure and effects on enzymatic digestibility. Biotechnol. Biofuels. 4: 41. https://doi.org/10.1186/1754-6834-4-41
Moss, A. R., J. -P. Jouany, & J. Newbold. 2000. Methane production by ruminants: its contribution to global warming. Ann. Zootech. 49: 231-253. https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2000119
Octavia, S., T. H. Soerawidjaja, R. Purwadi, & I. D. G. A. Putrawan. 2017. The advantages of soaking with aqueous ammonia pre-treatment process of oil palm empty fruit bunches. Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Tech. 7(3): 865-870. https://doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.7.3.1257
Patra, A., T. Park, M. Kim, & Z. Yu. 2017. Rumen methanogens and mitigation of methane emission by anti-methanogenic compounds and substances. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40104-017-0145-9
Schwab, C. G., & G. A. Broderick. 2017. A 100-Year Review: Protein and amino acid nutrition in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 100: 10094-10112. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2017-13320
Shi, Z., Q. Yang, S. Kuga, & Y. Matsumoto. 2015. Dissolution of wood pulp in aqueous NaOH/urea solution via dilute acid pretreatment. J. Agric. Food Chem. 63: 6113-6119. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b01714
Theodorou, M. K., B. A. Williams, M. S. Dhanoa, A. B. McAllan, & J. France. 1994. A simple gas production method using a pressure transducer to determine the fermentation kinetics of ruminant feeds. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 48: 185-197. https://doi.org/10.1016/0377-8401(94)90171-6
Thomsen, S. T., J. E. G. Londo-o, J. E. Schmidt, & Z. Kádár. 2014. Comparison of different pretreatment strategies for ethanol production of West African biomass. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 75: 2589-2601.
Tsabitah, S., A. A. Omar, & L. Ismail. 2014. Chemical pretreatment comparison for oil palm empty fruit bunch: A review. Appl. Mech. Mater. 625: 851-855. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.625.851
Van Soest, P. J., J. B. Robertson, & B. A. Lewis. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci. 74: 3583-3597. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
Van Soest, P. J. 2006. Review: Rice straw, the role of silica and treatments to improve the quality. Anim. Feed Sci. Tech. 130: 137-171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2006.01.023
Copyright (c) 2018 Tropical Animal Science Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Authors submitting manuscripts should understand and agree that copyright of manuscripts of the article shall be assigned/transferred to Tropical Animal Science Journal. The statement to release the copyright to Tropical Animal Science Journal is stated in Form A. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA) where Authors and Readers can copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, as well as remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, but they must give appropriate credit (cite to the article or content), provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.