Effective Behavior of Insects Pollinators of Flowers in Gadung Mango Clone 21 Variety
Pollinating insects are referred as support services, namely services by the processes in the ecosystems that support human well-being by maintaining or enhancing ecosystem services. The availability of flowers, diversity, and behavior of visiting pollinator insects affect the effectiveness of pollination to increase the formation of fruit sets of mango plants. The purpose of this study is to observe the behavior of pollinator insects visiting the mango gadung clone 21 varieties and their effectiveness in increasing the formation of fruit sets. Research has been carried out on two flower seasons: March-May (Off season) and July-September (On season) 2020. Visiting behaviors observed were the number of visits per minute (foraging rate) and the length of visit per flower (flower handling time). Pollination effectiveness was measured from the number of fruit sets formed from the open flower panicles and confined with a tangerine gauze. The results of the study obtained seven species including Apis sp., Trigona sp., Xylocopa sp., Polistes sp. 1, Polistes sp. 2, Chrysomya sp., and Eristalis sp. Visits of pollinating insects on the highest number of mango panicle flowers were (31.69 ± 7.69) flowers / 60 seconds by Trigona sp insects, and the lowest numbers were (2.70 ± 0.67) flowers / 60 seconds by Eristalis sp. insects. The longest visits of pollinator insects on mango flowers were obtained by Eristalis sp for (25.3 ± 8.50) sec/individual/flower and the shortest visits were by Trigona sp for (1.8 ± 0.63) seconds/individual/flower. Insect pollination increases fruit formation by 267.5%.
Keywords: insect visits, pollinating insects, fruit formation, gadung 21 varieties mango
Altmann J. 1984. Observational Sampling Methods for Insect Behavioral Ecology. The Florida Entomologist. 67(1): 50‒56. https://doi.org/ 10.2307/3494104
Bartomeus I, Potts SG, Steffan-Dewenter I, Vaissière BE, Woyciechowski M, Krewenka KM, Tscheulin T, Roberts SP, Szentgyörgyi H, Westphal C, Bommarco R. 2014. Contribution of insect pollinators to crop yield and quality varies with agricultural intensification. PeerJ Life and Environment. 27(2): e328. https://doi.org/ 10.7717/peerj.328
Bauer DM, Wing IS. 2010. Economic consequences of pollinator declines: A synthesis. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review. 39(3): 368–383. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1068280500007371
Choi SW, Jung C. 2015. Diversity of Insect Pollinators in Different Agricultural Crops and Wild Flowering Plants in Korea: Literature Review. Journal of Apiculture. 30(3): 191. https://doi.org/10.17519/ apiculture.2015.09.30.3.191
Dag A, Gazit S. 2000. Mango pollinators in Israel. Journal of Applied Horticulture. 2(1): 39–43. https:// doi.org/10.37855/jah.2000.v02i01.12
Efendi S, Rezki D. 2020. Desain Peningkatan Kapasitas Petani Melalui Aplikasi Teknologi Hatch and Carry Serangga Polinator Elaeidobius Kamerunicus Faust pada Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit. Indonesian Journal of Community Engagement. 6(1): 29. https://doi.org/10.22146/ jpkm.41643
Fajardo AC, Medina JR, Opina OS, Cervancia CR. 2008. Insect Pollinators and Floral Visitors of Mango. The Philippine Agricultural Scientist. 91(4): 372‒382.
Freitas BM, Pacheco, AJS, Andrade PB, Lemos CQ, Rocha EEM, Pereira NO, Bezerra ADM, Nogueira DS, Alencar RL, Rocha RF, Mendonça KS. 2014. Forest Remnants Enhance Wild Pollinator Visits to Cashew Flowers and Mitigate Pollination Deficit in Ne Brazil. Journal of Pollination Ecology. 12(4): 22‒30. https://doi.org/10.26786/1920-7603(2014)10
Funamoto D. 2019. Plant-Pollinator Interactions in East Asia: A Review. Journal of Pollination Ecology. 25(6): 62-68. https://doi.org/10.26786/1920-7603(2019)532
Gogoi J, Bathari M, Deuri A, Rahman A, Borah P. 2018. Pollinator diversity and effect of Apis cerana F. pollination on yield of mango (Mangifera indica L.). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 6(5): 957‒961.
Grüter C, Ratnieks FLW. 2011. Flower constancy in insect pollinators: Adaptive foraging behavior or cognitive limitation?. Communicative and Integrative Biology. 4(6): 633–636. https:// doi.org/10.4161/cib.16972
Hall MA, Stavert JR, Saunders ME, Barr S, Haberle, SG, Rader R. 2022. Pollen–insect interaction meta-networks identify key relationships for conservation in mosaic agricultural landscapes. Ecological Applications. 32(4): 1‒17. https://doi.org/ 10.1002/eap.2537
Hanley N, Breeze TD, Ellis C, Goulson D. 2015. Measuring the economic value of pollination services: Principles, evidence and knowledge gaps. Ecosystem Services. 14: 124–132. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2014.09.013
Holloway BA. 1976. Pollen-feeding in hover-flies (Diptera: Syrphidae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology. 3(4): 339–350. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/03014223.1976.9517924
Howlett BG, Gee M. 2019. The potential management of the drone fly (Eristalis tenax) as a crop pollinator in New Zealand. New Zealand Plant Protection. 72: 221–229. https://doi.org/10.30843/nzpp.2019. 72.304
Prasetiyono J, Tasliah, Karsinah. 2016. Keragaman Sebelas Klon Mangga Komersial Indonesia (Variation of Eleven Clones Indonesian Commercial Mango). Jurnal Hortikultura. 26(1): 31‒40. https://doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v26n1.2016.p31-40
Kato M, Kosaka Y, Kawakita A, Okuyama Y, Kobayashi C, Phimminith T, Thongphan D. 2008. Plant-pollinator interactions in tropical monsoon forests in Southeast Asia. American Journal of Botany. 95(11): 1375–1394. https://doi.org/10.3732/ ajb.0800114
Khalifa SAM, Elshafiey EH, Shetaia AA, El-Wahed AAA, Algethami AF, Musharraf SG, Alajmi MF, Zhao C, Masry SHD, Abdel-Daim MM, Halabi MF, Kai G, al Naggar Y, Bishr M, Diab MAM, El-Seedi HR. 2021. Overview of bee pollination and its economic value for crop production. Insects. 12(8): 1‒23. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080688
Khan K, Rasool M, Zahid M, Khalid KC. 2018. Taxonomic study of polistinae species (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) of Dir, Pakistan. Journal Of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 6(2): 791–794.
Klein AM, Vaissière BE, Cane JH, Steffan-Dewenter I, Cunningham SA, Kremen C, Tscharntke T. 2007. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. In Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Royal Society. 274(1608): 303–313.. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006. 3721
Kumar S, Nath P, Vishwavidyalaya GK, Singh V, Mansotra D. 2016. Role of Insects in Pollination of Mango Trees. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 5(1): 64‒67
Matsuki Y, Tateno R, Shibata M, Isagi Y. 2008. Pollination efficiencies of flower-visiting insects as determined by direct genetic analysis of pollen origin. American Journal of Botany. 95(8): 925–930. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.0800036
Huda NA, Salmah CMR, Hassan AA, Hamdan A, Razak AMN. 2015. Pollination services of mango flower pollinators. Journal of Insect Science. 15(1): 113-121. https://doi.org/10.1093/jisesa/iev090
Saeed S, Naqqash MN, Jaleel W, Saeed Q, Ghouri F. 2016. The effect of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on the size and weight of mangos (Mangifera indica L.). PeerJ Life and Environment. 2016(7): 1‒13. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2076
Saunders ME. 2018. Insect pollinators collect pollen from wind-pollinated plants: implications for pollination ecology and sustainable agriculture. Insect Conservation and Diversity. 11(1): 13–31. https://doi.org/10.1111/icad.12243
Sjödin NE. 2007. Pollinator behavioural responses to grazing intensity. Biodiversity and Conservation. 16(7): 2103–2121. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10 531-006-9103-0
Ssymank A, Kearns CA, Pape T, Thompson FC. 2008. Pollinating flies (diptera): A major contribution to plant diversity and agricultural production. Biodiversity. 9(1–2): 86–89. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/14888386.2008.9712892
Sung IH, Lin MY, Chang CH, Cheng AS, Chen WS, Ho KK. 2006. Pollinators and Their Behaviors on Mango Flowers in Southern Taiwan. Formosan Entomologist. 26: 161‒170.
Tej KM. 2017. Stingless bee Tetragonula iridipennis Smith for pollination of greenhouse cucumber. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 5(4): 1729–1733.
Usama ZS, Bilal M, Imran FM, Sajjad A. 2017. Foraging behavior of pollinators leads to effective pollination in radish Raphanus sativus L. Asian Journal of Agriculture & Biology. 5(4): 221‒227. https://tehqeeqat.org/english/articleDetails/2870
Usha, Srivastava P, Goswami, V. 2014. Diversity of floral insect visitors of mango during blooming period at Pantnagar. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 84(3): 363‒364. https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=IN2022005051
Usman M, Fatima B, Jaskani M. 2001. Breeding in Mango. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology. 8530(3‒4): 522-526. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233885361_Breeding_in_Mango
Vasiliev D, Greenwood S. 2020. Pollinator biodiversity and crop pollination in temperate ecosystems, implications for national pollinator conservation strategies: Mini review. Science of the Total Environment. 744: 1‒7. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.scitotenv.2020.140880
Vishwakarma, R, Singh R. 2017. Foraging behaviour of insect visitors and their effect on yield of mango var. Amrapali. Indian Journal of Entomology. 79(1): 72. https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-8172.2017.00016.5
Wacht S, Lunau K, Hansen K. 2000. Chemosensory control of pollen ingestion in the hoverfly Eristalis tenax by labellar taste hairs. Journal of Comparative Physiology A. 186(2): 193–203. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s003590050019
Wäckers FL, Romeis J, van Rijn P. 2007. Nectar and pollen feeding by insect herbivores and implications for multitrophic interactions. Annual Review of Entomology. 52: 301–32. https://doi.org/10.1146/ annurev.ento.52.110405.091352
Zhang DW, Xiao ZJ, Zeng BP, Li K, Tang YL. 2019. Insect behavior and physiological adaptation mechanisms under starvation stress. Frontiers in Physiology. 10(MAR): 163. https://doi.org/ 10.3389/fphys.2019.00163
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. NonCommercial — You may not use the material for commercial purposes.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).