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Spatial variability becomes very important in the management of large-scale agriculture such as plantations. Information on the spatial variability of agricultural land is needed to ensure the effectiveness and operational efficiency of agricultural machinery for primary tillage. This study proposes a model to determine the near real-time and high-resolution spatial distribution of tillage specific draft based on Sentinel-1A radar images. The research shows that the dynamics of spatial soil moisture content in near real time together with the fraction of sand and clay in the tillage layer affect the mechanical properties of the soil penetration resistance. The resulting spatial soil penetration determination model has a determination value of 56%. The mechanical properties of the soil penetration resistance determine tillage specific draft, that is the force acting against the direction of the traction motion, and have been shown to vary in the sugarcane plantation areas. The distribution of penetration resistance and the tillage specific draft can be calculated and visualized using a spatial map. The future contribution of this research is to develop a decision support system in the selection of appropriate agricultural machinery for primary tillage operations in sugarcane plantations based on the principles of precision agriculture.
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